Skip to main content
Knowledge category: Papers and reports

Key indicators for monitoring the circular economy (The data and statistical studies department (SDES), France)

Updated on 26.06.2023

Based on a selection of indicators covering the seven pillars of the circular economy (CE), the purpose of this publication is to report on the circularity of the French economy, updating the first publication of 2017 on this subject. International comparisons provide insight into France's position relative to its European neighbours.

Author: French Ministry for Ecological Transition
Year of publication: 2021

More information

CE allows us to move from a linear mode of production and consumption –extract, make, consume and waste – to a circular model. This transition, as set out in the Law of 17 August 2015 on the energy transition for green growth (LTECV) and the Law of 10 February 2020 on the prevention of waste and CE, is primarily based on the careful and responsible use of natural resources, particularly raw materials. Actions to be taken, with associated targets, have been defined at both French and European level to speed up the change in production and consumption patterns to reduce waste and preserve natural resources, biodiversity and the climate.

Relevance for Circular Systemic Solutions

This report presents 11 indicators divided into eight pillars of CE: extraction/manufacturing and sustainable supply chain; eco-design (products and processes); industrial symbiosis; functional economy responsible consumption; an extension of product lifespan; recycling; and extension of product lifespan and recycling. For every pillar, there is one or more indicators provided. For example, pillar recycling has two indicators: landfill tonnage trend; and use of secondary raw materials. For every indicator extensive details are provided: the objective of the indicator; a trend of the indicator; an analysis of how much needs to be reduced using the numbers in France; and an international comparison of this indicator. Finally, at the end of the report, a table with trends across the indicators is provided. This report outlines how fast France is moving towards a CE. Cities and regions can use this list of indicators as inspiration to form a framework that can help them to measure progress towards CE in their territory and/or to measure progress of certain circular actions and solutions, including Circular Systemic Solutions (CSS). Measuring progress is needed to further identify where gaps and barriers still are. CSSs can be further proposed and developed to address these gaps and barriers and support the territory with the transition.


CEAP2 key product value chain

CEAP2 key product value chain

CEAP2 key product value chain

CEAP2 key product value chain

built environment, CEAP2 key product value chain

CEAP2 key product value chain

CEAP2 key product value chain

CEAP2 key product value chain

e.g. chemicals, cosmetics, bio-based industries

e.g. electrical engineering, furniture and interior, textile and fashion

e.g. B2B services

e.g. healthcare

including bio-based economy

e.g. re-use of public spaces and facilities in urban areas

digital tools facilitating CE transition

Territories involved

large 500 000-200 000, medium 200 000-50 000, and small cities 50 000-5 000

large metropolitan area >1.5 million, metropolitan area 1.5 million-500 000

predominantly urban regions, intermediate and predominantly rural regions, refer to TERCET typology NUTS 3 region